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Recent Development on the Electrochemical Detection of Selected Pesticides: A Focused Review

Abstract: Pesticides are heavily used in agriculture to protect crops from diseases, insects, and weeds. However, only a fraction of the used pesticides reaches the target and the rest slips through the soil, causing the contamination of ground- and surface water resources. Given the emerging interest in the on-site detection of analytes that can replace traditional chromatographic techniques, alternative methods for pesticide measuring have recently encountered remarkable attention. This review gives a focused overview of the literature related to the electrochemical detection of selected pesticides. Here, we focus on the electrochemical detection of three important pesticides;  glyphosate, lindane and bentazone using a variety of electrochemical detection techniques, electrode materials, electrolyte media, and sample matrix. The review summarizes the different electrochemical studies and provides an overview of the analytical performances reported such as; the limits of detection and linearity range. This article highlights the advancements in pesticide detection of the selected pesticides using electrochemical methods and point towards the challenges and needed efforts to achieve electrochemical detection suitable for on-site applications.

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Rapid and Sensitive Quantification of the Pesticide Lindane by Polymer Modified Electrochemical Sensor

Abstract: Lindane is documented by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as one of the most toxic registered pesticides. Conventional detection of lindane in the environment requires manual field sampling and complex, time-consuming analytical sample handling relying on skilled labor. In this study, an electrochemical sensing system based on a modified electrode is reported. The system is capable of detecting lindane in aqueous medium in only 20 s. The surface of a conventional carbon
electrode is modified with a film of conductive polymer that enables detection of lindane down to 30 nanomolar. The electrode modification procedure is simple and results in a robust sensor that can withstand intensive use. The sensitivity of the sensor is 7.18 µA/µM and the performance was demonstrated in the determination of lindane in spiked ground water. This suggests that the sensor is potentially capable of providing useful readings for decision makers. The rapid and sensitive quantification of lindane in aqueous medium is one step forward to new opportunities for direct, autonomous control of the pesticide level in the environment.

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